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madcap_manuscript [2008/11/05 12:44]
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madcap_manuscript [2015/06/23 17:22] (current)
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 +The final version of this manuscript is published in "​Vegetation History and Archaeobotany",​ Online First with Open Access and is free for[[http://​springerlink.metapress.com/​content/​m25w02n1m5429362/?​p=0211667d1f28445db5f8a443b83fded8&​pi=9|download here.]]
 +
 ====A review of the European Pollen Database==== ====A review of the European Pollen Database====
  
-R M Fyfe, J-L de Beaulieu, H Binney, S Brewer, A Le Flao, W Finsinger, T Giesecke, G Gil-Romera, P Kunes, N Kühl, M Leydet+R M Fyfe, J-L de Beaulieu, H Binney, R H W Bradshaw, S Brewer, A Le Flao, W Finsinger, T Giesecke, G Gil-Romera, P Kunes, N Kühl, M Leydet
  
  
 ===Abstract=== ===Abstract===
-Pollen stratigraphies are the most spatially-extensive data available for the reconstruction of past land-cover change. ​ Detailed knowledge of past land cover is becoming increasingly important to evaluate the present trends in and future threats to vegetation composition. ​ The European Pollen Database (EPD) was established in the late 1980s and developed in the early 1990s to provide a structure for archiving, exchanging, and analysing pollen data from throughout Europe. ​ It provides a forum for scientists to meet and engage in collaborative investigations or data analysis. ​ In May 2007 a number of EPD support groups ​was developed to assist in the task of maintaining and updating the database. ​ The mapping and data accuracy work group (MAPCAP) aims to produce an atlas of past plant distributions for Europe, in order to meet the growing need for these data from palaeoecologists, as well as amongst ​the wider scientific community. ​ Due to data handling problems in the past a significant number of datasets that are in the EPD have errors. ​ The initial task of the work group, therefore, was a systematic review of pollen sequences, in order to identify and repair ​errors. ​ The EPD currently (June 2008) archives 1001 pollen sequences, of which 671 sequences have age–depth models that allow chronological comparison.  ​A large number of errors ​has been identified and corrected, or flagged for users, most notably errors in the pollen count data; we discuss here the types of errors encountered. ​ The application of spatial analyses to pollen data is related to the number of data points that are available for analysis. ​ We therefore take this opportunity to encourage the submission of pollen analytical results to the relevant pollen database. ​ Only in this way will the wider scientific community be able to gain a better understanding of the past vegetation dynamics.+Pollen stratigraphies are the most spatially-extensive data available for the reconstruction of past land-cover change. ​ Detailed knowledge of past land cover is becoming increasingly important to evaluate the present trends in and drivers of vegetation composition. ​ The European Pollen Database (EPD) was established in the late 1980s and developed in the early 1990s to provide a structure for archiving, exchanging, and analysing pollen data from throughout Europe. ​ It provides a forum for scientists to meet and engage in collaborative investigations or data analysis. ​ In May 2007 several ​EPD support groups ​were developed to assist in the task of maintaining and updating the database. ​ The mapping and data accuracy work group (MAPCAP) aims to produce an atlas of past plant distributions for Europe, in order to meet the growing need for these data from palaeoecologists ​and the wider scientific community. ​ Due to data handling problems in the past a significant number of datasets that are in the EPD have errors. ​ The initial task of the work group, therefore, was a systematic review of pollen sequences, in order to identify and correct ​errors. ​ The EPD currently (June 2008) archives 1001 pollen sequences, of which 671 sequences have age–depth models that allow chronological comparison.  ​Many errors ​have been identified and corrected, or flagged for users, most notably errors in the pollen count data. We discuss here the types of errors encountered. ​ The application of spatial analyses to pollen data is related to the number of data points that are available for analysis. ​ We therefore take this opportunity to encourage the submission of pollen analytical results to the relevant pollen database. ​ Only in this way will the wider scientific community be able to gain a better understanding of past vegetation dynamics.
  
 ===Introduction=== ===Introduction===
-The potential value of palaeoecological and geological databases has increased considerably in recent years, driven by increasing amounts of data and the use of earth-system ​models to study the past and forecast the future (ref). Databases such as the European Pollen Database (www.europeanpollendatabase.net)(EPD) are now considerably more than long-term data repositories and have become important tools in multi-disciplinary research projects. The large body of European pollen data is widely dispersed in the literature, but when organised into a common format becomes accessible for research into broad-scale vegetation dynamics and its interactions with climate and long-term development of human societies. The intention of this paper is (i) to review the development of the EPD and (ii) to highlight efforts made and solutions found to improve this data archive such that it may better serve the wider scientific community in the future. ​ The decision to produce such a paper was driven by the combined aims of (1) presenting the work of a Mapping and Data Accuracy Support Group established in 2007; and (2) setting a background for important discussions surrounding the future development of the EPD.  It is not intended as a definitive review, and parts may not reflect the views of the EPD community or those involved in its management.+The potential value of palaeoecological and geological databases has increased considerably in recent years, driven by increasing amounts of data and the use of dynamic vegetation ​models to study the past and forecast the future (Miller et al. 2008, Sitch et al. 2008). Databases such as the European Pollen Database (www.europeanpollendatabase.net)(EPD) are now considerably more than long-term data repositories and have become important tools in multi-disciplinary research projects. The large body of European pollen data is widely dispersed in the literature, but when organised into a common format becomes accessible for research into broad-scale vegetation dynamics and its interactions with climate and long-term development of human societies. The intention of this paper is (i) to review the development of the EPD and (ii) to highlight efforts made and solutions found to improve this data archive such that it may better serve the wider scientific community in the future. ​ The decision to produce such a paper was driven by the combined aims of (1) presenting the work of a Mapping and Data Accuracy Support Group established in 2007; and (2) setting a background for important discussions surrounding the future development of the EPD.  It is not intended as a definitive review, and parts may not reflect the views of the EPD community or those involved in its management.
  
 ===Role of the EPD=== ===Role of the EPD===
-Pollen stratigraphies are probably the most spatially-extensive data available for the reconstruction of past changes in terrestrial and aquatic vegetation composition. ​ In addition to using pollen records to investigate vegetation dynamics at individual sites through time, paleoecologists have used the large amount of information stored in the database to address a range of scientific questions at regional or continental scales, such as i) the reconstruction of patterns of past climate change through time and space (e.g. Davis et al. 2003), that in turn is important in hindcasting studies evaluating general circulation models (Bonfils et al. 2004); ​ ii) studies on the spread of plants, especially trees, since the last glaciation (e.g. Brewer et al. 2002; Terhürne-Berson et al., 2004; Giesecke and Bennett, 2004; Conedera et al., 2004; Krebs et al., 2004; van der Knaap et al, 2005; Magri, 2008); ​ iii) reconstructions of past plant distribution patterns which allow to test our understanding of factors limiting these and models that attempt to capture them (e.g. Giesecke et al. 2007). In addition, knowledge of pollen-inferred past land-cover changes makes it possible to evaluate the consequences and legacies of past land use and it provides information on the dynamic responses of vegetation with regard to a constantly changing environment. This may allow us to evaluate threats to our natural environment and define aims for the conservation and management of Europe’s landscape (Anderson et al. 2006; Willis et al. 2007).+Pollen stratigraphies are probably the most spatially-extensive data available for the reconstruction of past changes in terrestrial and aquatic vegetation composition. ​ In addition to using pollen records to investigate vegetation dynamics at individual sites through time, paleoecologists have used the large amount of information stored in the database to address a range of scientific questions at regional or continental scales, such as i) the reconstruction of patterns of past climate change through time and space (e.g. Davis et al. 2003), that in turn is important in hindcasting studies evaluating general circulation models (Bonfils et al. 2004); ​ ii) studies on the spread of plants, especially trees, since the last glaciation (e.g. Brewer et al. 2002; Terhürne-Berson et al., 2004; Giesecke and Bennett, 2004; Conedera et al., 2004; Krebs et al., 2004; van der Knaap et al, 2005; Magri, 2008); ​ iii) reconstructions of past plant distribution patterns which allow to test our understanding of factors limiting these and models that attempt to capture them (e.g. Giesecke et al. 2007) and increased precision of reconstruction POLLANDCAL activities (others to add, Sugita refs). In addition, knowledge of pollen-inferred past land-cover changes makes it possible to evaluate the consequences and legacies of past land use and it provides information on the dynamic responses of vegetation with regard to a constantly changing environment. This may allow us to evaluate threats to our natural environment and define aims for the conservation and management of Europe’s landscape (Anderson et al. 2006; Willis et al. 2007).
  
 {{figure1_1.jpg?​400*400}} {{figure1_1.jpg?​400*400}}
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   * Petit RJ, Brewer S, Bordács S, Burg K, Cheddadi R, Coart E, Cottrell J, Csaikl UM, van Dam B, Deans JD, Espinel S, Fineschi S, Finkeldey R, Glaz I, Goicoechea PG,   * Petit RJ, Brewer S, Bordács S, Burg K, Cheddadi R, Coart E, Cottrell J, Csaikl UM, van Dam B, Deans JD, Espinel S, Fineschi S, Finkeldey R, Glaz I, Goicoechea PG,
   * Jensen JS, König AO, Lowe AJ, Madsen SF, Mátyás G, Munro RC, Popescu F, Slade D, Tabbener H, de Vries SGM, Ziegenhagen B, de Beaulieu J-L, Kremer A. (2002) Identification of refugia and post-glacial colonisation routes of European white oaks based on chloroplast DNA and fossil pollen evidence. Forest Ecology and Management, 156: 49-74.   * Jensen JS, König AO, Lowe AJ, Madsen SF, Mátyás G, Munro RC, Popescu F, Slade D, Tabbener H, de Vries SGM, Ziegenhagen B, de Beaulieu J-L, Kremer A. (2002) Identification of refugia and post-glacial colonisation routes of European white oaks based on chloroplast DNA and fossil pollen evidence. Forest Ecology and Management, 156: 49-74.
-  * Prentice, C.I., Guiot, J., Huntley, B., Jolly D. and Cheddadi, R., 1996Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: a general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka. Climate Dynamics 12:185-194.+  ​* Miller, P., Giesecke, T., Hickler, T., Bradshaw, R.H.W., Smith, B., Seppä, H., Valdes, P., Sykes, M. (2008) Exploring climatic and biotic controls on Holocene vegetation change in Fennoscandia. Journal of Ecology, 96: 247-259. 
 +  ​* Prentice, C.I., Guiot, J., Huntley, B., Jolly D. and Cheddadi, R., (1996Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: a general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka. Climate Dynamics 12:185-194. 
 +  * Sitch, S., Huntingford,​ C., Gedney, N., Levy, P.E., Lomas, M., Piao, S.L., Betts, R., Ciais, P., Cox, P., Friedlingstein,​ P., Jones, C.D., Prentice, I.C., Woodward, F.I. (2008). Evaluation of the terrestrial carbon cycle, future plant geography and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks using five Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). Global Change Biology, 14: 2015-2039. 
 + (RHWB to add)
   * Stefanova I, van Leeuwen JFN, van der Knapp WO (2008) Loch Laxford (north-west Scotland, UK). Grana 48: 78-79   * Stefanova I, van Leeuwen JFN, van der Knapp WO (2008) Loch Laxford (north-west Scotland, UK). Grana 48: 78-79
   * Tarasov, P.E., Webb III, T., Andreev, A.A., Afanas'​eva,​ N.B., Berezina, N.A., Bezusko, L.G., Blyakharchuk,​ T.A., Bolikhovskaya,​ N.S., Cheddadi, R., Chernavskaya,​ M.M.,        * Tarasov, P.E., Webb III, T., Andreev, A.A., Afanas'​eva,​ N.B., Berezina, N.A., Bezusko, L.G., Blyakharchuk,​ T.A., Bolikhovskaya,​ N.S., Cheddadi, R., Chernavskaya,​ M.M.,     
madcap_manuscript.1225885489.txt.gz · Last modified: 2015/06/25 16:07 (external edit)
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