Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

les > trder mfap e_ny uribept.1219331545.txt.gz · Le pomedeed, : 2015/06/25 16:07 (exndrn c edit) Bk to theyp trder&#trder
Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
madcap_manuscript [2008/08/21 17:12]
giesie
madcap_manuscript [2015/06/23 17:22] (current)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +The final version of this manuscript is published in "​Vegetation History and Archaeobotany",​ Online First with Open Access and is free for[[http://​springerlink.metapress.com/​content/​m25w02n1m5429362/?​p=0211667d1f28445db5f8a443b83fded8&​pi=9|download here.]]
 +
 ====A review of the European Pollen Database==== ====A review of the European Pollen Database====
  
-R M Fyfe, J-L de Beaulieu, H Binney, S Brewer, A Le Flao, W Finsinger, T Giesecke, G Gil-Romera, P Kunes, N Kühl, M Leydet+R M Fyfe, J-L de Beaulieu, H Binney, R H W Bradshaw, S Brewer, A Le Flao, W Finsinger, T Giesecke, G Gil-Romera, P Kunes, N Kühl, M Leydet
  
  
 ===Abstract=== ===Abstract===
-Pollen stratigraphies are the most spatially-extensive data available for the reconstruction of past land-cover change. ​ Detailed knowledge of past land cover is becoming increasingly important to evaluate the present trends in and future threats to European ​vegetation composition. ​ The European Pollen Database (EPD) was established in the late 1980s and developed in the early 1990s to provide a structure for archiving, exchanging, and analysing pollen data from throughout Europe. ​ It provides a forum for scientists to meet and engage in collaborative investigations or data analysis. ​ In May 2007 a number of EPD support groups ​was developed to assist in the task of maintaining and updating the database. ​ The mapping and data accuracy work group (MAPCAP) aims to produce an atlas of past plant distributions for Europe, in order to meet the growing need for these data from palaeoecologists, as well as amongst ​the wider scientific community. ​ Due to data handling problems in the past a significant number of datasets that are in the EPD have errors. ​ The initial task of the work group, therefore, was a systematic review of pollen sequences, in order to identify and repair ​errors. ​ The EPD currently (June 2008) archives 1001 pollen sequences, of which 671 sequences have age–depth models that allow chronological comparison.  ​A large number of errors ​has been identified and corrected, or flagged for users, most notably errors in the pollen count data; we discuss here the types of errors encountered. ​ The application of spatial analyses to pollen data is related to the number of data points that are available for analysis. ​ We therefore take this opportunity to encourage the submission of pollen analytical results to the relevant pollen database. ​ Only in this way will the wider scientific community be able to gain a better understanding of the past vegetation dynamics.+Pollen stratigraphies are the most spatially-extensive data available for the reconstruction of past land-cover change. ​ Detailed knowledge of past land cover is becoming increasingly important to evaluate the present trends in and drivers of vegetation composition. ​ The European Pollen Database (EPD) was established in the late 1980s and developed in the early 1990s to provide a structure for archiving, exchanging, and analysing pollen data from throughout Europe. ​ It provides a forum for scientists to meet and engage in collaborative investigations or data analysis. ​ In May 2007 several ​EPD support groups ​were developed to assist in the task of maintaining and updating the database. ​ The mapping and data accuracy work group (MAPCAP) aims to produce an atlas of past plant distributions for Europe, in order to meet the growing need for these data from palaeoecologists ​and the wider scientific community. ​ Due to data handling problems in the past a significant number of datasets that are in the EPD have errors. ​ The initial task of the work group, therefore, was a systematic review of pollen sequences, in order to identify and correct ​errors. ​ The EPD currently (June 2008) archives 1001 pollen sequences, of which 671 sequences have age–depth models that allow chronological comparison.  ​Many errors ​have been identified and corrected, or flagged for users, most notably errors in the pollen count data. We discuss here the types of errors encountered. ​ The application of spatial analyses to pollen data is related to the number of data points that are available for analysis. ​ We therefore take this opportunity to encourage the submission of pollen analytical results to the relevant pollen database. ​ Only in this way will the wider scientific community be able to gain a better understanding of past vegetation dynamics.
  
 ===Introduction=== ===Introduction===
-The intention of this paper is to review the development of the European Pollen Database (EPD) and recent moves towards putting ​this data archive ​in a better ​position to serve the wider scientific community in the future. ​ The decision to produce such a paper was driven by the combined aims of (1) presenting the work of a Mapping and Data Accuracy Support Group established in 2007; and (2) setting a background for important discussions surrounding the future development of the EPD.  It is not intended as a definitive review, and parts may not reflect the views of the EPD community, Advisory Board or Executive Committee.+The potential value of palaeoecological and geological databases has increased considerably in recent years, driven by increasing amounts of data and the use of dynamic vegetation models to study the past and forecast the future (Miller et al. 2008, Sitch et al. 2008). Databases such as the European Pollen Database (www.europeanpollendatabase.net)(EPD) are now considerably more than long-term data repositories and have become important tools in multi-disciplinary research projects. The large body of European pollen data is widely dispersed in the literature, but when organised into a common format becomes accessible for research into broad-scale vegetation dynamics and its interactions with climate and long-term development of human societies. ​The intention of this paper is (i) to review the development of the EPD and (iito highlight efforts made and solutions found to improve ​this data archive ​such that it may better serve the wider scientific community in the future. ​ The decision to produce such a paper was driven by the combined aims of (1) presenting the work of a Mapping and Data Accuracy Support Group established in 2007; and (2) setting a background for important discussions surrounding the future development of the EPD.  It is not intended as a definitive review, and parts may not reflect the views of the EPD community or those involved in its management.
  
 ===Role of the EPD=== ===Role of the EPD===
-Pollen stratigraphies are probably the most spatially-extensive data available for the reconstruction of environmental change.  ​This information ​on past land-cover change is becoming increasingly important for a range of scientific questions.  Among others:  ​i) it provides information on the pattern ​of past climate change through time and space (e.g. Davis et al. 2003), that in turn is important in hindcasting studies evaluating general circulation models (Bonfils et al. 2004); ​ ii) it forms the basis for studies on the spread of plants, especially trees, since the last glaciation (e.g. Brewer et al. 2002; Terhurne-Berson et al., 2004; Giesecke and Bennett, 2004); ​ iii) it allows ​reconstructions of past plant distribution patterns ​and makes it possible ​to test our understanding of factors limiting these and models that attempt to capture them (e.g. Giesecke et al. 2007);  ivit makes it possible to evaluate the consequences and legacies of past land use;  ​and not least v) it provides information on the dynamic responses of vegetation with regard to a constantly changing environment ​and thus allows ​us to evaluate threats to our natural environment and define aims for the conservation and management of Europe’s landscape (Anderson et al. 2006; Willis et al. 2007).+Pollen stratigraphies are probably the most spatially-extensive data available for the reconstruction of past changes in terrestrial and aquatic vegetation composition.  ​In addition to using pollen records to investigate vegetation dynamics at individual sites through time, paleoecologists have used the large amount of information ​stored in the database to address ​a range of scientific questions ​at regional or continental scales, such as i) the reconstruction of patterns ​of past climate change through time and space (e.g. Davis et al. 2003), that in turn is important in hindcasting studies evaluating general circulation models (Bonfils et al. 2004); ​ ii) studies on the spread of plants, especially trees, since the last glaciation (e.g. Brewer et al. 2002; Terhürne-Berson et al., 2004; Giesecke and Bennett, 2004; Conedera et al., 2004; Krebs et al., 2004; van der Knaap et al, 2005; Magri, 2008);  iii) reconstructions of past plant distribution patterns ​which allow to test our understanding of factors limiting these and models that attempt to capture them (e.g. Giesecke et al. 2007) and increased precision of reconstruction POLLANDCAL activities (others to add, Sugita refs). In addition, knowledge of pollen-inferred past land-cover changes ​makes it possible to evaluate the consequences and legacies of past land use and it provides information on the dynamic responses of vegetation with regard to a constantly changing environment. This may allow us to evaluate threats to our natural environment and define aims for the conservation and management of Europe’s landscape (Anderson et al. 2006; Willis et al. 2007).
  
 {{figure1_1.jpg?​400*400}} {{figure1_1.jpg?​400*400}}
Line 17: Line 19:
  
  
-The increasing understanding of these topics, and the need to analyse spatial patterns, makes it necessary to draw information from more than a single pollen ​diagram.  Many of these investigations require the availability of datasets because only limited information can be extracted from published printed pollen diagrams. ​ Data archives such as the European Pollen Database (EPD) and other global databases thus play an important role in the collation and archiving of data at the extensive spatial scales needed for regional or continental ​analyses of land cover.  ​This storage of original pollen count data and their associated metadata is therefore important for between site comparisons and spatial analyses. ​ The EPD has become the main archive ​to provide ​the above functions for pollen analytical results from western Eurasia. ​ In addition to serving as a data archive for extensive spatial analyses, the EPD also plays an important role for individual data contributors in mitigating against the inevitable metadata loss (“information-entropy”,​ sensu Michener et al., 1997) that occurs through time (Figure 1).  Both count data and metadata have a natural decay function through time as a result of memory recall, accidental data loss, changes in storage media and subsequent incompatibility,​ and retirement or death of the original investigators.  ​+The increasing understanding of these topics, and the need to analyse spatial patterns, makes it necessary to draw information from more than a single pollen ​record.  Many of these investigations require the availability of datasets because only limited information can be extracted from published printed pollen diagrams. ​ Data archives such as the European Pollen Database (EPD) and other global databases thus play an important role in the collation and archiving of data at the extensive spatial scales needed for analyses at regional or continental ​scales.  ​The storage of original pollen count data and their associated metadata is therefore important for between site comparisons and spatial analyses. ​ The EPD has become the main archive ​for provision of the above functions for pollen analytical results from western Eurasia. ​ In addition to serving as a data archive for extensive spatial analyses, the EPD also plays an important role for individual data contributors in mitigating against the inevitable metadata loss (“information-entropy”,​ sensu Michener et al., 1997) that occurs through time (Figure 1).  Both count data and metadata have a natural decay function through time as a result of memory recall, accidental data loss, changes in storage media and subsequent incompatibility,​ and retirement or death of the original investigators.  ​
  
 ===Short history of the EPD=== ===Short history of the EPD===
-Towards the end of the 1980s the IGCP 158b working group led by B. Berglund and M. Ralska-Jaziewiszova,​ and palynologists involved in EU research programs on palaeoclimatology (A. Pons, W. Watts, B. Huntley) both needed improved maps of palaeovegetation based on the large sets of pollen data acquired since the 1960s. ​ The work of Huntley and Birks (1983) had demonstrated the value of spatial analysis of pollen data, and had a great influence on many European palynologists. ​ These groups realised the need for a pollen database (the EPD).  In 1988 the first EPD-related discussions and meetings took place involving, amongst others, J. Guiot, C. Prentice, B. Huntley, B. Berglund and G, Jacobson. ​ These discussions resulted in a meeting, convened by B. Berglund, to discuss the organisation of the database. ​ The proposal by A. Pons to host the EPD in Arles was accepted. ​ Two subsequent workshops in Arles (1989) and Wilhelmshaven (1990) led to the definition of the database software, the administrative structure (an Advisory Board representative of the different European regions, and an Executive Committee of three persons invited to meet every year to review EPD progress: Table 1) and the “protocol” ruling the rights and the duties of data contributors and users. ​ The EPD and the North American Pollen Database (NAPD) were established simultaneously through active collaboration with Eric Grimm and John Keltner. ​ This was done to ensure compatibility and to contribute towards the ultimate goal of a Global Pollen Database. ​ In 1990, thanks to temporary CCE funding, R. Cheddadi was appointed to work alongside Joel Guiot as EPD Manager, and in January 1991 the first newsletter was sent to European Quaternary palynologists asking them to contribute their data to the EPD.+Towards the end of the 1980s the IGCP 158b working group led by B. Berglund and M. Ralska-Jaziewiszova,​ and palynologists involved in EU research programs on palaeoclimatology (A. Pons, W. Watts, B. Huntley) both needed improved maps of palaeovegetation based on the large sets of pollen data acquired since the 1960s. ​ The work of Huntley and Birks (1983) had demonstrated the value of spatial analysis of pollen data, and had a great influence on many European palynologists. ​ These groups realised the need for a pollen database (the EPD).  In 1988 the first EPD-related discussions and meetings took place involving, amongst others, J. Guiot, C. Prentice, B. Huntley, B. Berglund and G, Jacobson. ​ These discussions resulted in a 1989 meeting, convened by B. Berglund, to discuss the organisation of the database, which was attended by representatives of 18 European countries.  The proposal by A. Pons to host the EPD in Arles was accepted. ​ Two subsequent workshops in Arles (1989) and Wilhelmshaven (1990) led to the definition of the database software, the administrative structure (an Advisory Board representative of the different European regions, and an Executive Committee of three persons invited to meet every year to review EPD progress: Table 1) and the “protocol” ruling the rights and the duties of data contributors and users. ​ The EPD and the North American Pollen Database (NAPD) were established simultaneously through active collaboration with Eric Grimm and John Keltner. ​ This was done to ensure compatibility and to contribute towards the ultimate goal of a Global Pollen Database. ​ In 1990, thanks to European and French national ​funding, R. Cheddadi was appointed to work alongside Joel Guiot as EPD Manager, and in January 1991 the first newsletter was sent to European Quaternary palynologists asking them to contribute their data to the EPD.
  
 The EPD was constructed to provide an inclusive and permanent archival facility to all palynologists for storing the basic data that had been generated within European research. ​ It was anticipated that the EPD would also become a tool by means of which further research on biogeographical,​ palaeoclimatological and palaeoecological problems could be addressed, at a variety of different spatial and temporal scales. ​ The role of past environmental archives in the understanding of global climate change was clear from the early 1980s; ​ contemporary societal concerns surrounding climate change have resulted in an even greater role for archives of past environments. The EPD was constructed to provide an inclusive and permanent archival facility to all palynologists for storing the basic data that had been generated within European research. ​ It was anticipated that the EPD would also become a tool by means of which further research on biogeographical,​ palaeoclimatological and palaeoecological problems could be addressed, at a variety of different spatial and temporal scales. ​ The role of past environmental archives in the understanding of global climate change was clear from the early 1980s; ​ contemporary societal concerns surrounding climate change have resulted in an even greater role for archives of past environments.
  
-The 1990s was a very busy time for the EPD, with numerous training courses organised in Arles and elsewhere. ​ The BIOME6000 initiative stimulated palynologists to share pollen data, and much of the former Soviet Union and Mongolian data was compiled as part of this project, facilitated by funds obtained from the EU (INTAS) to promote the participation of these partners (Prentice et al., 1996; Tarasov et al., 1998). ​ Unfortunately,​ the team hosting the EPD (IMEP) did not succeed in securing a permanent position for a database manager from their French administration. ​ From 1995 to 2003 funding for the further development and management of the EPD was dependent upon collaboration with foresters involved in EU research projects (Fairoak, Cytofor and Fossilva) that used the EPD as a tool linking phylogeography and palaeobiogeography of forest ​tees (Petit et al., 2002; Cheddadi et al., 2006; Magri et al., 2006). ​ A consequence of tying the funding of the EPD to research projects was that the database manager became the principal user of the EPD, resulting in less of his time being available to undertake data compilation tasks. ​ When the Fossilva project ended in the early 2000s the EPD was unfunded. ​ It managed to survive thanks to the altruistic contribution of R. Cheddadi, whose position was now supported by other projects, thus limiting his ability to commit time to the EPD.  The EPD became a relict database, with no development or incorporation of new data.  At the end of 2006 IMEP obtained a permanent position for a new database manager (M. Leydet) from the University of Aix-Marseille and data compilation resumed, with the support of the NOE EVOLTREE project.+The 1990s was a very busy time for the EPD, with numerous training courses organised in Arles and elsewhere. ​ The BIOME6000 initiative stimulated palynologists to share pollen data, and much of the former Soviet Union and Mongolian data was compiled as part of this project, facilitated by funds obtained from the EU (INTAS) to promote the participation of these partners (Prentice et al., 1996; Tarasov et al., 1998). ​ Unfortunately,​ the team hosting the EPD (IMEP) did not succeed in securing a permanent position for a database manager from their French administration. ​ From 1995 to 2003 funding for the further development and management of the EPD was dependent upon collaboration with foresters involved in EU research projects (Fairoak, Cytofor and Fossilva) that used the EPD as a tool linking phylogeography and palaeobiogeography of forest ​trees (Petit et al., 2002; Cheddadi et al., 2006; Magri et al., 2006). ​ A consequence of linking ​the funding of the EPD to research projects was that the database manager became the principal user of the EPD, resulting in less of his time being available to undertake data compilation tasks. ​ When the Fossilva project ended in the early 2000s the EPD was unfunded. ​ It managed to survive thanks to the altruistic contribution of R. Cheddadi, whose position was now supported by other projects, thus limiting his ability to commit time to the EPD.  The EPD became a relict database, with no development or incorporation of new data.  At the end of 2006 IMEP obtained a permanent position for a new database manager (M. Leydet) from the University of Aix-Marseille and data compilation resumed, with the support of the NOE EVOLTREE project.
  
-In May 2007 a special open meeting to discuss the future of the EPD was convened by Richard Bradshaw in Arbois (France) under the auspices of a EuroCLIMATE workshop. ​ The workshop, attended by 78 European palynologists,​ had a range of outputs that can be reviewed on the EPD website (http://​www.europeanpollendatabase.net).  ​Recognising that maintaining and updating the database requires constant work, one of these outputs ​was the formation of a range of support and working groups. ​ The Mapping and Data Accuracy working group (MADCAP) is one of these EPD support groups formed at the 2007 meeting, with representatives from across Europe (Table 1).  The aim of MADCAP is the production of a palaeovegetation atlas, based on the EPD.+In May 2007 a special open meeting to discuss the future of the EPD was convened by Richard Bradshaw in Arbois (France) under the auspices of a EuroCLIMATE workshop. ​ The workshop, attended by 78 European palynologists,​ had a range of outputs that can be reviewed on the EPD website (http://​www.europeanpollendatabase.net).  ​One output ​was the formation of a range of support and working groups ​to help maintain and update the database.  The Mapping and Data Accuracy working group (MADCAP) is one of these EPD support groups formed at the 2007 meeting, with representatives from across Europe (Table 1).  The aim of MADCAP is the production of a palaeovegetation atlas, based on the EPD. These working groups reported to a well-attended open meeting of the EPD at the International Palynological Congress, Bonn in 2008 where a new administrative structure for the EPD was proposed and accepted. It was decided that the EPD would be managed by a board comprising an elected chairperson and the spokespersons of the working groups. The term of office of the chairperson would be four years
  
 ===Status of the EPD=== ===Status of the EPD===
Line 38: Line 40:
  
  
-As a result of the considerable collaborative effort from the outset, the database is largely compatible with other continental databases and the Global Pollen Database. ​ It currently contains 57 tables divided into 5 categories: ​ archival; ​ look-up; ​ research; ​ system; ​ and views. ​ Of these, the archival tables contain the original data (e.g. counts), the look-up tables contain reference information (e.g. plant taxonomy) and the research tables contain information relating to analyses of the data (e.g. age–depth models). ​ The database is currently managed using Paradox®, although it has also been transferred to PostgreSQL® to allow web access and there is a general agreement to migrate to a new database system, expected in late-2008. ​ The complex table structure of the EPD was designed to make full use of the power of a relational database, so that all entries in the database can be queried in parallel. ​ It is thus possible, for example, to find all sites with chronological information that had more than 1% Plantago lanceolata pollen 5000 radiocarbon years ago.  In order to be able to execute such a query, the user needs to download the full database. ​ Users less experienced with working with Paradox or PostgreSQL databases may find it easier to work with the database in Microsoft Access®, and an MS Access version of the database ​may be obtained from the database manager and will in future be provided for download from the EPD web site.+As a result of the considerable collaborative effort from the outset, the database is largely compatible with other continental databases and the Global Pollen Database. ​ It currently contains 57 tables divided into 5 categories: ​ archival; ​ look-up; ​ research; ​ system; ​ and views. ​ Of these, the archival tables contain the original data (e.g. counts), the look-up tables contain reference information (e.g. plant taxonomy) and the research tables contain information relating to analyses of the data (e.g. age–depth models). ​ The database is currently managed using Paradox®, although it has also been transferred to PostgreSQL® to allow web access and there is a general agreement to migrate to a new database system, expected in late-2008. ​ The complex table structure of the EPD was designed to make full use of the power of a relational database, so that all entries in the database can be queried in parallel. ​ It is thus possible, for example, to find all sites with chronological information that had more than 1% Plantago lanceolata pollen 5000 radiocarbon years ago.  In order to be able to execute such a query, the user needs to download the full database. ​ Users less experienced with working with Paradox or PostgreSQL databases may find it easier to work with the database in Microsoft Access®, and an MS Access version of the database ​has been provided for download from the EPD web site.
  
 {{figure4.jpg?​300*300}} {{figure4.jpg?​300*300}}
Line 48: Line 50:
  
 ===MADCAP activities=== ===MADCAP activities===
-The mapping and data accuracy work group of the EPD was established at the open meeting in France in 2007 and aims to make the data in the EPD more available to the scientific community and thus to enhance their use.  The key goal of the group is to produce a new web-based version of a European palaeovegetation atlas that provides maps of past pollen percentages for visualisation,​ teaching purposes and as a basis for data–model comparisons. ​ In order to achieve this goal the group has undertaken a systematic review of the data currently held in the EPD with the aim of identifying problems with individual site records, and of flagging errors for correction within the database (see below). ​ This process has followed a standardized protocol. ​ Data have been downloaded from the EPD, pollen diagrams constructed and, wherever possible, checked against the original publications. ​ In the first instance sites that have some chronological control were targeted and age–depth models were included in the review process, as these will form the basis for the palaeovegetation atlas. ​ The age–depth models for each site within the database have also been checked. ​ Members of the group combine different regional expertise so that diagrams from most European regions were checked by a person with knowledge about their regional vegetation history. ​ Where the types of data handling errors described above have been identified, this has been fed back to the database Manager, who is a member of the group, for flagging or, where possible, correction.+The mapping and data accuracy work group of the EPD was established at the open meeting in France in 2007 and aims to make the data in the EPD more available to the scientific community and thus to enhance their use.  The key goal of the group is to produce a new web-based version of a European palaeovegetation atlas that provides maps of past pollen percentages for visualisation,​ teaching purposes and as a basis for data–model comparisons. ​ In order to achieve this goal the group has undertaken a systematic review of the data currently held in the EPD with the aim of identifying problems with individual site records, and of flagging errors for correction within the database (see below). ​ This process has followed a standardized protocol. ​ Data have been downloaded from the EPD, pollen diagrams constructed and, wherever possible, checked against the original publications. ​ In the first instance sites that have some chronological control were targeted and age–depth models were included in the review process, as these will form the basis for the palaeovegetation atlas. ​ The age–depth models for each site within the database have also been checked. ​ Members of the group combine different regional expertise so that diagrams from most European regions were checked by a person with knowledge about their regional vegetation history. ​ Where the types of data handling errors described above have been identified, this has been fed back to the database Manager, who is a member of the group, for flagging or, where possible, correction. Untilreflect , Madfap entrie data accecked by711ollen diquences astrong>.
  
 ==Geratedn of the daw welaeovegetation atlas thiin thogress: sing Pae datab simut from acthin the daD.  Th the enlect , ime as –depth models foarbeing avnstructed a#160;​ The agfal data (seused theoompiled he aimas thll fo manadavailable to the scder scmmunity anllowedg avnsle, dn of the daoject, fa thll fogriedliesults fro each sixonomy) reity /td> ThGeratedn of the daw welaeovegetation atlas thiin thogress: sing Pae datab simut from acthin the daD.  Th the enlect , ime as –depth models foarbeing avnstructed a#160;​ The agfal data (seused theoompiled he aimas thll fo manadavailable to the scder scmmunity anllowedg avnsle, dn of the daoject, fa thll fogriedliesults fro each sixonomy) reity /td>
  
 =====Eors dethin the daD.&= ===MAEors dethin the daD.&=
-The maD wielved in a vame aswh percesal vensleung ins anti emergg groupw moarbranger coan a simternsf thup,nent#160;​ A consequence of&#his haithat the d ava a newuer of theors dethin the daD.&hat thsult ofom acta hatriey,andling eand ofnveneion o#160;​ A chough itese wieors dea a re avmmun within tholr scta (seu the Eytimu focurs ithin thta (seu hat have soen fesubttee more thctitly hand an rinevitable m#160;​ Atrong class="diff-mark">. 160;&#Tse wieors dea a ranife instoth nee datadata had in Jae revawount data a#160; ​.+The maD wielved in a vame aswh percesal vensleung ins anti emergg groupw moarbranger coan a simternsf thup,nent#160;​ A consequence of&#his haithat the d ava a newuer of theors dethin the daD.&hat thsult ofom acta hatriey,andling eand ofnveneion o#160;̴​ Atrong class="diff-mark">. Eors dea a ranife instoth nee datadata had in Jae revawount data a#160;&#tdrong>.. Tse wieors dere estnunt ded in thca. 1.1%ad in Jaca. 6.6%f the daquences anecked bresulctedivy coable 1)2). coss exaer pwieors or the palduction of a palaeovegetation atlas, s the pr Jurectioa eamisng Paetevion of a rate...  tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">.  tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. ^160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th^160; Theors opes o#8203;wwrrection.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. | Eors de Jae reunt data an|160; ThEors n Jacnts),160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 160; Th26160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 160; T8203;300.7160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th56.5160; Th|  tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. |160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Thsple, exath cd atoassocned to Jurectioapth m160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 5160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 0.7160;&# 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 10.9160; Th|  tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. |160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Thaggihsple, #8203;wwcords,160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 15160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 2.1160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 32.6160; Th|  tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. | Conologicy160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; ThCnge hasuggters,160;​ A 160; Th|160; Th20160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th2.8160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T| tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. |160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A Newhronologicyanada160; Th160; Th|160; Th9160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th1.3160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th| tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. |160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; ThCnnologicyaaggins,160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 75160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th10.5160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th160; T| tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. | Cods,itely,160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Thclurectioatg c/l canrectios,160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 8160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th1.1160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 160; T| tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. |160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A clurectioaetevion o160;​ A nrectios,160;​ A 160; T8203; A|160;​ A 3160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th0.4160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th| tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. |160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A Noaetevion o160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th24160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 3.4160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th160; T| tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. | Rorence i&160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A clurectio#8203;wwmisng Paference innrectios,160;​ A |160; Th47160;&# 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th|160; Th6.6160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 160; T| tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. |160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A Noaference i160;​ A 160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 58160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 8.2160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; Th160; T8203; A|160;​ A 160; T| tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">.  tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">.  tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. Tle 1)2 tdrong>.
  
&#/td>ThEors dethin the davawount ddea a typal c throresultedf the daojecs of hinveneion of the data cseusto 5 e daD.  ThEors dey be obstematic rethin thmut fr.g. agath cdg of thunt data antween sixonom And Bir),toasrd Bomr.g. age to onom r and ndividual sitple, gatapp for a pnher c ​ The d wieors dea a ualis thobviou ​ arT reunt dar a Armatisiaey be obsth cd atr a Alnusor a neng P, gaple, tor example, tosulting in led ndsoted pahighalue ofs="ocied withined natypal c w welue of the orier c#160;​ Atrong class="diff-mark">. 160;&#tdrong>.+ThEors dethin the davawount ddea a typal c throresultedf the daojecs of hinveneion of the data cseusto 5 e daD.  ThEors dey be obstematic rethin thmut fr.g. agath cdg of thunt data antween sixonom And Bir),toasrd Bomr.g. age to onom r and ndividual sitple, gatapp for a pnher c ​ The d wieors dea a ualis thobviou ​ arT reunt dar a Armatisiaey be obsth cd atr a Alnusor a neng P, gaple, tor example, tosulting in led ndsoted pahighalue ofs="ocied withined natypal c w welue of the orier c#160;​ Atrong class="diff-mark">. IJary bufewhras a,htifirehsple, exre essth cd at.g. agath cdg of thpth motween sitple, gXnd BiY)toassocned to inclurectioapth m#160;​ Atdrong>.
  
&#/td>ThT rerors described abso farad ingra and peuortunatelyecamee ofe Eytd inmutuat in the rechival tables c#160;​ A Ls exaeriou&or the patabase, sotormprotuna dar a ers.&,ed insors d,nmisjudment osa eamisted rpration ade Jae reuntructedn of a r–depth models f#160;​ A c–depth models foat allreased on thry bufewhrededlrminion adeoft ideed rpoted nd p/ examtrapoted nor pony Euoughsan to poars a#160;​ This prc reseatedf Jarors deat alme cme adey be obobviou&tor example, toere a nete-20glaal opllen diqctedrums a msgned to maa Holecsnas visuceersioa#160; ​. ers l160;&#tdrong>.+The marors described abso farad ingra and peuortunatelyecamee ofe Eytd inmutuat in the rechival tables c#160;​ A Ls exaeriou&or the patabase, sotormprotuna dar a ers.&,ed insors d,nmisjudment osa eamisted rpration ade Jae reuntructedn of a r–depth models f#160;​ A c–depth models foat allreased on thry bufewhrededlrminion adeoft ideed rpoted nd p/ examtrapoted nor pony Euoughsan to poars a#160;​ This prc reseatedf Jarors deat alme cme adey be obobviou&tor example, toere a nete-20glaal opllen diqctedrums a msgned to maa Holecsnas visuceersioa#160; ​. dfap entrie data ac,euolreflect , Masuggters,hange hto the alronologica orga alrderyanadahnewhe tsor a newuer of thquences anable 1)2). Conologica orsed on thon thon vitwoadiocarbon yetab save soen feaggins, duwi 5 e dipossttifiis thw weleccion o# Hower p, ers.&160;&#tdrong>.
  
 . thtnuntred to suported y Eurors deateystnunt dedo the database Manager, #160;​ ThEh sieors oshld be foear f hederibed abo, whifossible, cosuggtern ThAllontributors and users.&f the EPD at rstrucg>. thtnuntred to suported y Eurors deateystnunt dedo the database Manager, #160;​ ThEh sieors oshld be foear f hederibed abo, whifossible, cosuggtern
Line 4870/td> Line 5089/td>
  
 ===MARorence i&= ===MARorence i&=
&#/td>Th160;&#s* Aersta yeJN, Bugny n H, Dr fg agJA, Glabld coM-J (06).& Lking phyaeoecoironmental arta had indels foaonderstandinhe daot podin160;to h#160;provediedheiruture b. Tncedde JaEcogicyadinhEvolion of21: 696-704td>+Th160;&#s* Aersta yeJN, Bugny n H, Dr fg agJA, Glabld coM-J (06).& Lking phyaeoecoironmental arta had indels foaonderstandinhe daot podin160;to o160;provediedheiruture b. Tncedde JaEcogicyadinhEvolion of21: 696-704td>
 ==160;&#s* Bvefi foC,ede Nlemst-DuuntdrstN, Guiot J, Bartle JaPJ (06)4) Se chmeangeism&f thmid-Holecsnasimate change ha European,nforred toom acmpariso ParMIPndels foaonta a# Cmate chDynamic&to23, 79de98/td> Th160;&#s* Bvefi foC,ede Nlemst-DuuntdrstN, Guiot J, Bartle JaPJ (06)4) Se chmeangeism&f thmid-Holecsnasimate change ha European,nforred toom acmpariso ParMIPndels foaonta a# Cmate chDynamic&to23, 79de98/td>
 ==160;&#s* Bdshaw i, RHW (06)7) Claboration witween siGragend the reropean rellen Database.&iGragen47: 129td> Th160;&#s* Bdshaw i, RHW (06)7) Claboration witween siGragend the reropean rellen Database.&iGragen47: 129td>
 ==160;&#s* Bder ofS,heddadi etR,ede Beaulieu LJ, Rlle anM,uta contributors s (06)2)rT resprderf thptciduou&oQuerc to trgh it thrope (Tste theirete poglaal opleriod. Fest&#aEcogicyadinhMagement of156: 27-48td> Th160;&#s* Bder ofS,heddadi etR,ede Beaulieu LJ, Rlle anM,uta contributors s (06)2)rT resprderf thptciduou&oQuerc to trgh it thrope (Tste theirete poglaal opleriod. Fest&#aEcogicyadinhMagement of156: 27-48td>
 ==160;&#s* eddadi etR,eVcedramisiGG, Lktt T,rance s (FL, KemeyamanM,uLont rzfS,hLaunt reJ-M,ede Beaulieu J-L, SadoriFL, Jt spA, Lt daD (06).& Irisin of poglaal oprefugiin the EPdelsrnenerac redersity of AiPinusosyed ronis.lobal PoEcogicyadinhBgeography of15: 271-282/td> Th160;&#s* eddadi etR,eVcedramisiGG, Lktt T,rance s (FL, KemeyamanM,uLont rzfS,hLaunt reJ-M,ede Beaulieu J-L, SadoriFL, Jt spA, Lt daD (06).& Irisin of poglaal oprefugiin the EPdelsrnenerac redersity of AiPinusosyed ronis.lobal PoEcogicyadinhBgeography of15: 271-282/td>
Li160;+Th160;&#s* eonerabl, M., Kreb&toP., Tinn p, W., Pdsheabo, M., & Torrigei, D. (06)4) T reutingvion of a Caandiea tionva (Mle .)a European,nom aciosa einaloaoniosaff-auon of a sintinental dasca m# Vetation atHtory.&adinhArangeobondi​ th13, 161-179/td>
 ==160;&#s* Dav (FBAS,hBder ofS,hStevena yeAC, Guiot Jnd data compributors s (06)3)he termmpatede of thrope (Tding a e EPHolecsnascordtructed anom acllen data, .oQuarnati.&aScnced Rlews.& 22: 1701-1716td> Th160;&#s* Dav (FBAS,hBder ofS,hStevena yeAC, Guiot Jnd data compributors s (06)3)he termmpatede of thrope (Tding a e EPHolecsnascordtructed anom acllen data, .oQuarnati.&aScnced Rlews.& 22: 1701-1716td>
 ==160;&#s* Giesked T,rBenn tt KD (06)4) T reHolecsnassprderf thPicea aba or(L.)aKatan.n Fraennoscandiend thadjact andrdes.lJourn c thBgeography of31: 1523-1548td> Th160;&#s* Giesked T,rBenn tt KD (06)4) T reHolecsnassprderf thPicea aba or(L.)aKatan.n Fraennoscandiend thadjact andrdes.lJourn c thBgeography of31: 1523-1548td>
Line 4880/td> Line 5010
  Th160;&#s* Ht dley B,rBirks HJB (1983)hAyeAas, s past pod palect , illen daps ofr a rope (T: 0-13,0 raars ago.  InCambrie abiversity ofPss, BoCambrie a/td>
  Th160;&#s* Jankovská V, Kuneš P, v rer scKnaap WO (06)7) Fláje-Kiorenn (KrušnéeHo.&aMnt dnst ):hLatGlobaal opd paHolecsnasgetation atvelopment o.iGragen46: 214-216td>
Li160;+Th160;&#s* Kreb&toP., eonerabl, M., Pdsheabo, M., Torrigei, D.,raelb p, M., & Tinn p, W. (06)4) Quarnati.&arefugiin the daqen tfeckstn th(Caandiea tionva Mle .):nti exnded oppynological Coapproach# Vetation atHtory.&adinhArangeobondi​ th13, 145-0;&/td>
Li160;+Th160;&#s* Magri, D. (06)8) Pterns of thpt s0glaal opsprderfd the reexndetf poglaal oprefugiin thrope ( be qech (Fagusosyedic ra)lJourn c thBgeography o#8203; th35: 450-463td>
  Th160;&#s* Magri D,eVcedramisiGG, Com ofB,rDun="lp coI, Gebe ok T,rGömöny D,eLatalowanM,uLktt T,rPauleFL, Roe ofJM,uTtagouoI, v rer scKnapp WO,rPac t RJ,ede Beaulieu J-L (06).& Ahnewhscsnarioor the paQuarnati.&astory.&n thrope ( be qech poputionalك thyaeoecbondial Coedes ed d thnerac rensequence os.lNewhPhytogists, 171: 199-221/td>
  Th160;&#s* Mh cd n p WK,hBdt daJW, Hes thJJ,eKirann p TB,hStaort d SG (1997) Nonogrstibl Cotadata har the paecogical Coscnced s.lEcogical CoAppcations.& 7: 330-342td>
  Th160;&#s* Pac t RJ,eBder ofS,hBt dácsfS,hBurg K,heddadi etR,eCoart E,eCottres J, Csaikl UM, v reDamfB,rD( bs JD,eEspehelfS,hFeheschifS,hFehkeldey R,eobazoI, Goicoechea PG,td>
  Th160;&#s* Jeequn JS,hKönig AO,uLowe AJMadfaqun SFMadátyás G, Munro RC,rPe (scu FMaSlada D,uTtbb n p H,ede Ves inSGM, ZietanhatanfB,rde Beaulieu J-L, Krem p A. (06)2)rIntifiedcion of a refugiind palt s0glaal opcogination,&hup,n of darope ( bewhe wioakorsed on thchlope te poDNAnd Bifsiblopllen diedes ed . Fest&#aEcogicyadinhMagement o,f156: 49-74/td>
&#/td>Th160;&#s* Pnt rice, C.I., Guiot, J., Ht dley,hB., Jts thD. dinheddadi e, R., 1996trong class="diff-mark">to,160;prRordtructedg a biom from acyaeoecocogical Cota h: general agtadhorfd thiosaappcations.oaonropean pallen data, n a 0fd th6 ka# Cmate chDynamic& 12:185-094/td>&#/td>Th160; ​. * Mle p, P., Giesked ,uT., Hick p, T., Bdshaw i, R.H.W., Smith,hB., Seppä, H., Valde&toP., Syke&toM. (06)8) Explopg avnmate red thbioc renseol wsn thHolecsnasgetation atange ha Euaennoscandie.lJourn c thEcogicy, 96: 247-259. tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. 160; ​.<* Pnt rice, C.I., Guiot, J., Ht dley,hB., Jts thD. dinheddadi e, R.,160;to(tdrong>.<1996trong class="diff-mark">to)160;prRordtructedg a biom from acyaeoecocogical Cota h: general agtadhorfd thiosaappcations.oaonropean pallen data, n a 0fd th6 ka# Cmate chDynamic& 12:185-094/trong class="diff-mark">.  tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. 160;&#s* Sh cd, S., Ht dg art d#8203; thC., Gedney,hN., LevytoP.E., Lomas, M., Piao, S.L., Betu thR., Ciai&toP., eoxtoP., Fed ing estei​ teP., Jtne&toC.D., Pdt rice, I.C., Woodwa d# F.I. (06)8).lElue edn of the datred roni opcbon yecyc, torure beant taography ofd, ormate c-cbon yecyc, feedck t sing Pafe efDynamiclobal PoVetation atMels fo(DGVMs).lobal PoCnge haBiogicy, 14: 2015-3; 9. tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. 160;&#(RHWBo maadd)tdrong>.
  Th160;&#s* StefanovaoI, v reLeeuwun JFN, v rer scKnapp WO (06)8) Loch Laxrt d (north-wt&#aScotlo, whUK).iGragen48: 78-79td>
  Th160;&#s* TarasovtoP.E., Webb III, T., AerrsevtoA.A., Afanas&#; 9#8203;
 ==160;&#s* eddrnova, G.M., Dopefeyuk#eN.I., Dirksen, V.G., Elina,hG.A., Fimatonova, L.V., GlebovtoF.Z., Guiot, J., Gunova, V.S., Harsons., S.P., Jts t, D.,rKhomutova, V.I.,160; Th160;&#s* eddrnova, G.M., Dopefeyuk#eN.I., Dirksen, V.G., Elina,hG.A., Fimatonova, L.V., GlebovtoF.Z., Guiot, J., Gunova, V.S., Harsons., S.P., Jts t, D.,rKhomutova, V.I.,160;
 ==160;&#s* Kvavadz toE.V., Osipova, I.M., Panova, N.K., Pdt rice, I.C., Saar, soL., Seve pyanov#8203; teVolkova, V.S., Zdrnioskaya#8203; teV.P., (1998) Pect , -daofd, omid-Holecsnasbiom frcordtructed anom acllen dad palnt tamacpefsiblopta harm the EPrmat ofSovietbiveodad paMg>.olia.lJourn c thBgeography of25, 1029-1053/td> Th160;&#s* Kvavadz toE.V., Osipova, I.M., Panova, N.K., Pdt rice, I.C., Saar, soL., Seve pyanov#8203; teVolkova, V.S., Zdrnioskaya#8203; teV.P., (1998) Pect , -daofd, omid-Holecsnasbiom frcordtructed anom acllen dad palnt tamacpefsiblopta harm the EPrmat ofSovietbiveodad paMg>.olia.lJourn c thBgeography of25, 1029-1053/td>
&#/td>Th160;&#s*160;toTerhurnetdrong>.<-Bsta yeR,uLktt T,reddadi etR (06)4) T resprderf thAba or trgh it thrope (Tste theirete poglaal opleriod:ombine ddamacpefsiblopd palten data, .oVetation atHtory.&adinhArangeobondi& 13: 257-268td>&#/td>Th160;&#s*160;toTerhürnetdrong>.<-Bsta yeR,uLktt T,reddadi etR (06)4) T resprderf thAba or trgh it thrope (Tste theirete poglaal opleriod:ombine ddamacpefsiblopd palten data, .oVetation atHtory.&adinhArangeobondi& 13: 257-268trong class="diff-mark">.  tdrong>.
Li160;+Thtrong class="diff-mark">. 160;&#s* v rer scKnaap, W. O., v reLeeuwun, J.oF.hN., Finng P p, W., GobeuwhE., Pine, R., Schweiz p, A., Valsecchi, V.and inAmny n,hB. (06)5).iMigtion wid paltputionalxperanon of thAba o, Fagus,hPiceaand inQuerc toste th150 raars agiwid paacpeshae inAlps,hsed on thlten d-rcentages r tresholdelue os.oQuarnati.&aScnced Rlews.& 24, 645-68&/tdrong>.
  Th160;&#s* Willis KJ, Araújo MB,rBenn tt KD, Figueroa-Rge hlfB,rFroyd CA, Mys.&fN (06)7) Howrc reowledge ab the daoe pohelpo contrrerveheiruture b?160;​ ThBgedersity ofntrrervion wid paroresutevie of&#htg c-dlrmaecogical Costudios.oPhilosophal CoTragsacon adeofaroreRoy CoSocnc ofB 362: 175-186td>